Skip to content

Control aspects of the Bayesian search process


  verbose = FALSE,
  verbose_iter = FALSE,
  no_improve = 10L,
  uncertain = Inf,
  seed =^5, 1),
  extract = NULL,
  save_pred = FALSE,
  time_limit = NA,
  pkgs = NULL,
  save_workflow = FALSE,
  save_gp_scoring = FALSE,
  event_level = "first",
  parallel_over = NULL,
  backend_options = NULL,
  allow_par = TRUE



A logical for logging results (other than warnings and errors, which are always shown) as they are generated during training in a single R process. When using most parallel backends, this argument typically will not result in any logging. If using a dark IDE theme, some logging messages might be hard to see; try setting the tidymodels.dark option with options(tidymodels.dark = TRUE) to print lighter colors.


A logical for logging results of the Bayesian search process. Defaults to FALSE. If using a dark IDE theme, some logging messages might be hard to see; try setting the tidymodels.dark option with options(tidymodels.dark = TRUE) to print lighter colors.


The integer cutoff for the number of iterations without better results.


The number of iterations with no improvement before an uncertainty sample is created where a sample with high predicted variance is chosen (i.e., in a region that has not yet been explored). The iteration counter is reset after each uncertainty sample. For example, if uncertain = 10, this condition is triggered every 10 samples with no improvement.


An integer for controlling the random number stream. Tuning functions are sensitive to both the state of RNG set outside of tuning functions with set.seed() as well as the value set here. The value of the former determines RNG for the higher-level tuning process, like grid generation and setting the value of this argument if left as default. The value of this argument determines RNG state in workers for each iteration of model fitting, determined by the value of parallel_over.


An optional function with at least one argument (or NULL) that can be used to retain arbitrary objects from the model fit object, recipe, or other elements of the workflow.


A logical for whether the out-of-sample predictions should be saved for each model evaluated.


A number for the minimum number of minutes (elapsed) that the function should execute. The elapsed time is evaluated at internal checkpoints and, if over time, the results at that time are returned (with a warning). This means that the time_limit is not an exact limit, but a minimum time limit.

Note that timing begins immediately on execution. Thus, if the initial argument to tune_bayes() is supplied as a number, the elapsed time will include the time needed to generate initialization results.


An optional character string of R package names that should be loaded (by namespace) during parallel processing.


A logical for whether the workflow should be appended to the output as an attribute.


A logical to save the intermediate Gaussian process models for each iteration of the search. These are saved to tempdir() with names gp_candidates_{i}.RData where i is the iteration. These results are deleted when the R session ends. This option is only useful for teaching purposes.


A single string containing either "first" or "second". This argument is passed on to yardstick metric functions when any type of class prediction is made, and specifies which level of the outcome is considered the "event".


A single string containing either "resamples" or "everything" describing how to use parallel processing. Alternatively, NULL is allowed, which chooses between "resamples" and "everything" automatically.

If "resamples", then tuning will be performed in parallel over resamples alone. Within each resample, the preprocessor (i.e. recipe or formula) is processed once, and is then reused across all models that need to be fit.

If "everything", then tuning will be performed in parallel at two levels. An outer parallel loop will iterate over resamples. Additionally, an inner parallel loop will iterate over all unique combinations of preprocessor and model tuning parameters for that specific resample. This will result in the preprocessor being re-processed multiple times, but can be faster if that processing is extremely fast.

If NULL, chooses "resamples" if there are more than one resample, otherwise chooses "everything" to attempt to maximize core utilization.

Note that switching between parallel_over strategies is not guaranteed to use the same random number generation schemes. However, re-tuning a model using the same parallel_over strategy is guaranteed to be reproducible between runs.


An object of class "tune_backend_options" as created by tune::new_backend_options(), used to pass arguments to specific tuning backend. Defaults to NULL for default backend options.


A logical to allow parallel processing (if a parallel backend is registered).


For extract, this function can be used to output the model object, the recipe (if used), or some components of either or both. When evaluated, the function's sole argument has a fitted workflow If the formula method is used, the recipe element will be NULL.

The results of the extract function are added to a list column in the output called .extracts. Each element of this list is a tibble with tuning parameter column and a list column (also called .extracts) that contains the results of the function. If no extraction function is used, there is no .extracts column in the resulting object. See tune_bayes() for more specific details.

Note that for collect_predictions(), it is possible that each row of the original data point might be represented multiple times per tuning parameter. For example, if the bootstrap or repeated cross-validation are used, there will be multiple rows since the sample data point has been evaluated multiple times. This may cause issues when merging the predictions with the original data.

Hyperparameters and extracted objects

When making use of submodels, tune can generate predictions and calculate metrics for multiple model .configurations using only one model fit. However, this means that if a function was supplied to a control function's extract argument, tune can only execute that extraction on the one model that was fitted. As a result, in the collect_extracts() output, tune opts to associate the extracted objects with the hyperparameter combination used to fit that one model workflow, rather than the hyperparameter combination of a submodel. In the output, this appears like a hyperparameter entry is recycled across many .config entries---this is intentional.

See to learn more about submodels.